Visualizing Borderlands: The Devils Rope

The last few weeks I have been working on a project for one of my classes, Visualizing Borderlands, that challenged us to think about how to visually represent a border. Along with my group-mates, Claudia Ojeda and Naren Roy, we decided to use barbed wire (or what the Native Americans call “Devils Rope”) to show “the control, entrapment and genocide of both Buffalo and Native Americans in the US West, focusing specifically on the Lakota people given their connection to the animal.” To do this, we 3D printed skulls of bison, humans, fences; bought fake barbed wire; and laser cut a map of the land-loss for the Lakota Tribe and bison. Take a look at the photos below, and I’ve included background information and sources at the bottom:

Barbed Wire as a historical, genocidal object

  • Barbed wire has long been used as a symbol of division and has aided in many instances the oppression of people, animals, land, and more. 
  •  Barbed wire was used during the US expansion into the the West in the 1800s
    • Used as a tactic to trap cattle (usually cows or buffalo/American bison).
      • This restricted the animals and eventually harmed the Native American populations that depended on them. 
    • Barbed wire caused “The Cowboy Wars”.
      • Farmers were expanding into the West and used barbed wire to fence up their territories and their cattle, clashing with the cowboys, who would cut up the fences with wire cutters as protest.
  • It was ideal for the West because of the vast prairies and open land. 
    • Trapping cattle would ensure they didn’t destroy crops.
  • The barbed wire trapped the Bison, as well as Native American tribes in the West, since it forced them Westward, and for centuries since it would restrict the land they had access to. 

History of the Lakota People and Bison

  • Bison hunters in the West become prominent in the 1870s
    • Legend of Buffalo Bill (which I know everyone heard growing up…)
  • The animals lose their ability to openly graze the land, and they also become more susceptible to being hunted for sport.
    • They were physically injured by the barbed wire too, with many often getting stuck and dying in it.
  • This alters Native American tribes too, since not only do they lose land, but they lost a sacred and essential animal for their way of life.
  • The Lakota people were one of the populations most affected by this, as they considered buffalo a sacred animal given to them by the Great Spirit Wakan Tanka
    • They use every part of the animal
    • Buffalo were integral for commerce
      • Hair, fur, and skins used in goods
    • Central part of all Spiritual rituals; there are usually Buffalo heads or symbols present
    • Main source of meat for the Lakota people
  • As barbed wire and settlers entrapped Buffalo and Native Americans, they were also systematically destroying the way of life for both populations. 

Landmark events:

  • 1871: the Indian Appropriations Act: President Grant’s “Peace Policy” that said Plains Natives should be treated as wards of the state instead of as autonomous nations
  • 1873:  barbed wire becomes a patented design by a man named Joseph Glidden.
    • Patented: Since its creation in the late nineteenth century (specifically 1874), barbed wire became very influential in the political landscape of control, particularly in the ways it delineates space and borders.
  • 1829-1870: Westward Expansion: Farmers were expanding into the West and they needed a way to fence off their private territory, so they used barbed wire. This ended up causing a “war” among cowboys in the West, but there were terrible long term effects on buffalo populations and Native Americans.
  • 1873: That very same year, then-President of the U.S. Grant decides to veto a piece of legislation that could have had the potential to prevent the mass killing of Buffalo 
  • 1879: United States Geological Survey helps to institutionalize and Facilitate this Westward expansion (classified public lands and mines, focused on $$)

Sources

  1. https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/barbed-wire 
  2. https://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/events/1870_1880.htm 
  3. https://www.lakotamall.com/importance-of-buffalo/#:~:text=Tatanka%20as%20they%20were%20known,spiritually%20interconnected%20with%20the%20buffalo’s.
  4. Razac, Olivier., and Olivier. Razac. Barbed Wire : a Political History New York: New Press, 2002.
  5. 99% Invisible Podcast episode 157 called The Devil’s Rope https://99percentinvisible.org/episode/devils-rope/
  6. Infographic/Comic by Andy Warner https://medium.com/re-form/clipping-the-devils-rope-3b436d994318
  7. https://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2016/05/the-buffalo-killers/482349/
  8. https://www.insidescience.org/news/bison-slaughter%E2%80%99s-destructive-legacy-native-americans
  9. https://allthatsinteresting.com/american-bison-extinction-1800s
  10. https://twitter.com/simongerman600/status/1192777558141485056?lang=en
  11. https://www.pinterest.com/pin/549720698247420111/
  12. http://atlasextinctnations.blogspot.com/2012/01/holy-grail-of-north-american-maps.html
  13. http://www.slate.com/blogs/the_vault/2014/06/17/interactive_map_loss_of_indian_land.html
  14. U.S. Population Density: https://www.visualcapitalist.com/visualizing-200-years-of-u-s-population-density/
  15. Barbed Wire “changing” the West https://historyengine.richmond.edu/episodes/view/6265
  16. https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/barbed-wire 
  17. https://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/events/1870_1880.htm 
  18. https://decolonialatlas.wordpress.com/2015/04/08/bison-range-and-lakota-territory/
  19. https://kiowacountyindependent.com/lifestyles/long-time-gone/209-long-time-gone-featured-then-thousands-of-american-bison-appear 
  20. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Sioux

How to check your voter status!

Hey y’all! In a lot of states, voter registration has not ended even though we are 22 days from the election. If you have questions about your state, email me at taliagk@att.net! Please! Let’s not make this an election we regret.

Because I’m in the great state of Pennsylvania, I created this graphic to help people easily access their voter registration/check their mail-in ballot applications:

Here’s a hand-dandy graphic for dates to register to vote by:

From Business Insider, note that states highlighted in blue have in-person registration on Election Day!

Question nationalism and VOTE

My mom taught me to be a truth-teller. To ask questions, even when they are hard to ask. Even when you don’t want to know the answer. My Jewish faith did the same. Ask questions when they are hard to ask, think critically about the answers and ask those questions again. We never stop asking questions, and that’s a beautiful thing. I don’t accept answers that feel like they are missing something and that is a good thing. 

Recently, I’ve been living off-campus from Haverford and when I drive around, I see tons of Trump campaign signs, “Drain the Swamp,” “Vote the Lockdown Liberals Out,” “Pray to End Abortion.” It’s these signs that I question, and I wish the owners of the signs would question them, too. What about Donald Trump’s lack of tax payments isn’t the “swamp”? What about Republican governors who had lockdowns like Mike Dewine of Ohio or Charlie Baker of Massachusetts? How exactly will just thinking and praying on an issue change anything when we know that it has to do with legislation and who’s on the Supreme Court? These are just a few of my questions.

Right now, I’m in a class on Nationalism. Donald Trump’s blind patriotism is nationalism. Holding up the American flag without thinking about why you’re holding it up and the decades of pain and turmoil behind the flag is nationalism. His support of white nationalism and QAnon and all of the men who tried to kill Gretchen Whitmer (I’m boiling with anger just thinking about it) is evil. Today, I opened The NY Times on my phone and I read: “QAnon Is Thriving in Germany. The Extreme Right Is Delighted.” That should terrify you. Germany is one of the few countries that dealt with its history of genocide, and it should be the last place where far-right fringe groups are thriving. It terrifies me. When QAnon is anti-Semitic (they rail on the Rothschild family) and compare Angela Merkel to a “‘Zionist Jew,’” you know something is very wrong. 

I beg all of you to consider how our world is changing and becoming scarier and scarier. Here’s what you can do: go to a phonebook. It’s easy, I promise. Here’s a link to sign-up: https://joebiden.com/call/. If you can’t phonebank, email a local campaign and ask to deliver yard signs or literature (all socially-distanced), email me at taliagk@att.net and I will help you. And, the smallest ask of them all, make sure the people in your life vote on November 3. Make a plan for yourself and ask THREE, just three, people to make a plan with you. 

Finding My Family: a podcast

Hey everyone! For the past few months, I have been in a radio and podcast class, and this is the product: a podcast about my grandfather’s history, and our family’s connections to Nazi Germany. Below, I have included some photos of my grandfather’s life, photos of my grandfather’s stamp collection, and some photos that I took at the National Archives.

Here's the podcast:

Photos of my grandfather

I found a bunch of photos that show parts of my grandfather's life. Unfortunately, I couldn't find photos of his childhood

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My grandfather’s stamps

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The National Archive trip

Trying to find a spirit? Montana ghost towns have them.

My fascination with all things old did not originate this year, but as a little tyke. I can remember being overjoyed to go to Virginia City, MT, a ghost town we visited every year due to its proximity to our home in Big Sky. The candy shop, old buildings, and rotting jail fascinated me, and still does. Every time I go to a ghost town, I get a mind picture: vigilantes running wild with their stallions and steely faces. I can hear the saloon door slam. The sound of children screaming in back porches. Women cowering from the “Wild West” of it all inside their parlors.

Bannack

This year, we traveled further afield, exploring other ghost towns around Montana. First, we visited Bannack, MT, a town in the southwest corner of Montana that was the capital of the territory from 1862 to 1864. We visited during “Bannack Days”, a celebration with period clothes, activities, events (think shoot out), and food.

Named after the Bannock Indians, the town was a gold-mining town (different towns have different rocks containing various metals and stones). The town included a hotel, saloons, surveyors, barber shops, doctor, stores, homes, jail, etc.

 

Famous vigilante Henry Plummer (who was hung in Virginia City) was the sheriff on Bannack for a time, until he was caught and hung.

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Cabin on the edge of Bannack

Elkhorn and Marysville

A few weeks later, we drove up to Helena, the current capital of Montana, and spent the  night. During our time there, we saw two ghost towns: Elkhorn and Marysville, both of which I consider to be half-ghost towns because they are still inhabited today.

In the 1880s, $14 million dollars of silver was found in Elkhorn. As it is still inhabited, we could only go into two buildings: the Elkhorn fraternity hall and the saloon.

Driving down the dusty town roads, we made our way up to the cemetery, which had a lot of children’s graves from a diphtheria epidemic in 1889. The graveyard was fascinating, as it still had a lot of wooden graves as well as graves as new as 2015.

Marysville was a bust. From looking at pictures, I can tell that there has been a lot of new development since 1974, which takes away from the ghost-yness of the town. At it’s height, 4,000 people lived in the town.

The mine, the Drumlummon, was named after the hometown of it’s found, Tommy Cruise. As a mine, the Drumlummon, which is one of my new favorite words, had millions of dollars of gold. Now, there’s even an effort to get more gold and silver out of the remaining veins in the mine. Here’s a New York Times article about it: https://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/02/us/02marysville.html and a photo gallery: https://www.nytimes.com/slideshow/2010/05/01/us/20100502-MARYSVILLE.html?action=click&contentCollection=U.S.&module=RelatedCoverage&region=EndOfArticle&pgtype=article.

Montana State Orphanage

While it’s not a ghost town, I’ve driven past the old Montana State Orphanage for years, and finally, the gates were open this year (it’s being sold)! Walking on the premises, I could feel the eeriness of it.

Open between 1894 and 1975, many of the children living at the orphanage were not full orphans, but only had one parent who was unable to support them.

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Nicknamed “the Castle” by the children this is where administration was

Just now, I was reading about town women, Emma Ingalls and Maggie Hathaway, who were the first two women elected to the Montana legislature in 1917 (the same year Montana sent Jeanette Rankin to the United States House as the first woman in Congress ever). These two women were champions of the disenfranchised and created pensions for mothers, so that they could support their children alone (and so that the children wouldn’t have to go to the orphanage).

For me, the fascinating part of ghost towns is that they can come alive. The land is still living. People still crave shininess. In each of these towns, I could see how the town’s had held living, breathing things. History is still alive even if ghosts roam.

May 25 and 26: The Real King’s Landing

Enter Dubrovnik, the pearl of the Adriatic. With the city walls surrounding the city, it truly feels like an medieval town and a perfect end to this trip. Around the walls sits St. Benedict, the patron saint of the city, who holds the city in one hand and a book in the other hand.

 

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Over our time here, we have visited the Jewish synagogue in town, which is not in use as only 45 Jews live in Dubrovnik. There are 1,700 Jews in Croatia, and before World War II, there were 20,000.

 

The major attraction for Dubrovnik is also Game of Thrones, which was filmed here. The whole city feels and breaths King’s Landing. I walked the same route of Cersei Lannister on her “Walk of Shame” and saw the same bay where the battle of Blackwater was filmed.

 

Today, Lissa and I went to Lokrum, an island that is a ten-minute boat ride from Dubrovnik. There, we saw peacocks and rabbits running around, as well as tons of flora and fauna. The island was used as a Benedictine Monastery until 1808, but legend has it that the monks cursed the island for anyone who tries to take it for themselves. Over the years, the island has been in the hands of kings, archdukes, crusaders, and used for dowries.

 

 

Goodbye, May Project and Croatia. It’s been quite the run.

May 24: Marco Polo and the little lakes

Korcula

Arriving on the shores of Korcula, I felt slightly like Odysseus, who had spent seven years on the island, according to myth. All our guides and even my guidebook said this like it was a fact, which it so clearly is not.

Just like other Croatian towns, the town was situated on winding streets with stone homes all around. It, too, had been in the hands of the Ottomans, Italians, Austro-Hungarians, French, and Croatians. It had the same story of siege and battle like every island.

One clear difference s Marco Polo, who was born on the island, and started his travels from Korcula to Venice. His father was actually the man to sail to China first, but Marco wrote about it, so we know his name. Before his first voyage to China, Marco had a relationship with a noblewoman in Venice and was set to be hung, but his father helped him escape and took him to China. We now know all about Marco’s adventures by his writings. In fact, his last words were about how he only told half of what he saw because everyone wouldn’t believe the full story.

Mljet

Next, we traveled to the small island of Mljet, where the Mljet National Park is. Again, the island is famed for its connection to Odysseus and is said to have been another island where he spent a lot of time.

The same story of being conquered by tons of rulers and countries applies to Mljet. Today, the National Park seems to sustain the island. Here are some photos from the beautiful lakes:

 

Tomorrow, we go to Dubrovnik for the end of this adventure.

May 23: The murderer’s palace

Split

Split! Split! Split! No, I don’t mean gymnastics, I mean the city. Situated along the Croatian coast, Split was made for a sort of retirement home for Diocletian, emperor of the Roman empire from 284 to 305.

Diocletian, born in Salona, Croatia in 244, disowned his parents, who were former slaves, and said he wanted to be emperor. He killed his way to the top of the Roman military, and eventually became emperor. He ruled for 20 years, and decided that he would be the only Roman emperor to retire from being emperor. So, he decided to build a palace for himself right where he was born: in Split. He built the palace with military barracks, temples, and palaces.

The Palace

Starting in the basement of the palace, we saw the throne room, which was also used as Daenerys Targaryen’s throne room in Game of Thrones, where Diocletian would greet people who came to see him. The rooms are unfinished, as the sea water came into the rooms and destroyed much of the walls and decorations. After Diocletian’s demise, families used the rooms as a septic tank, and for thousands of years, they put their “toilet waste” in Diocletian’s palace. What a way to preserve history.

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The Murderer

Diocletian did not believe in Christianity. So much so, that he murdered 6,000 people, many of who were Christians. Both his wife and daughter became Christians, and he murdered them privately in his palace. The “special” people got murdered in the palace. All the rest got murdered out in the Roman amphitheater. All in all, I’m pretty glad I didn’t live in Diocletian’s vicinity.

Hvar

We docked in Hvar, a beautiful seaside town and had calamari and prawns for dinner. Tomorrow, another adventure.

May 22: What makes a Croatian Croatian?

Zadar

As I write, I’m leaving the port of Zadar, which is the most important port geographically and economically in the Adriatic Sea. Therefore historically, whoever controls the port of Zadar, controlled the whole Adriatic. For hundreds of years, Romans, Venetians, Ottomans, Byzantines, Franks, Croatians, and Austro-Hungarians have fought over the port.

During World War II, Zadar was under Fascist Italian control, and therefore had Italian architecture. After the war, the Communists destroyed much of the architecture and parts of the city: they never wanted the Italians to come back.

Now, the city is speckled with ruins from all the different time periods. A Roman forum here. A temple to Jupiter Optimus Maximus, for the gods Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, there. Communist block buildings. Italian gothic architecture and the winged lion of Venice. Cisterns and basilicas from Byzantium. A gryphon, which the Croatian pagan tribes used to pray to, at the top of a column later used for torture. The same column was used for punishing women. Trees from China, Japan, Persia: all because the trade/ military ships entered the port. There is a cosmopolitan-sense to the city, it’s clearly a place where people from every which way of the world came.

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The pillar!

I asked the guide, “Who exactly are the Croatians?” The Croatians are people that came from Persia to Poland, and then veered south and came to Croatia. It’s a mixture of what we consider to be Islamic and Slavic, Slavic and Austro-Hungarian. Their language also contains Turkish, Italian, and Arabic words. Their food is an amalgamation of all the different cultures.

Krka National Park

I don’t think that words will do Krka National Park justice, so enjoy these photos.

Siebnik

I’ve only had a taste of Sibenik, but the town’s beautiful two UNESCO amaze me.

It seems that every little town in Croatia has the relics of a Saint. It’s the same story: they stole the Saint from this town and then the Saint traveled around in 1200 and now it’s in a tiny Croatian town.

Tomorrow

Tomorrow, we’re going back to Roman roots with the town of Split, that was built as Diocletian’s palace in the 4th century. I’m beyond excited.

May 21: The Croatian Chronicles, mid-way through

Cruising on the Adriatic Queen, the ship rocked more than I would like this morning. Nonetheless, it got us where we wanted to go: Mali Lošinj.

Mali Lošinj

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In Mali Lošinj, we started on a walking tour with a non-English speaking guide who was a rookie, so some of us broke off to walk around on our own. Walking around the small streets, we found an antique jewelry shop with beautiful glass, pearl, and coral jewelry. While peering around the shop, I noticed something that I’ve seen many times on this trip: negrobilia, which are collectibles that show the objectification of black people in a stereotypical way. I’ve seen negrobilia in everywhere from hotels in Venice to churches to random souvenir stands. It’s interesting to me that I see almost the same amount of negrobilia here that I do in the United States.

 

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Shoes with steotypical African women on them

 

But, there are very few people of color in Croatia. In the past three days, I’ve seen one black man.  I’ve seen racist, stereotypical jugs, salt shakers, cups, paintings, and jewelry in restaurants, museums, and antique stores in the United States. No matter the country, it makes me just as disgusted. Even after I wrote this, I was walking around our new port, and I saw a pair of shoes with black, African, stereotypical women on them.

Book Group

We read two pieces for today’s discussion, “Thank you for Not Sharing,” which is ten reasons why to be a Croatian writer. The piece is extremely sarcastic and sardonic and was written by a Croatian dissident, who was exiled after she started to warn Croatians about the dangers of nationalism. She was called a “witch.” In a way, her writing and warnings are dealing with the same things that I see throughout all these countries in Europe: intense nationalism for everyone’s individual country. We also read “Chasing a Croatian Girl,” which was written by an American who followed his Croatian wife to Croatia.

The Swimming Incident

The captain decided to stop and  allow us to swim off the boat. I jumped in first, and the Adriatic felt amazing. Checking out the current, I could feel it was strong and stayed close to the rope they threw out. A few people didn’t realize the strength of the current, and were swept out into the ocean. After seeing the situation wasn’t going to resolve itself, I told a crew member, who said she would go jump in the water. First, our tour director jumped in the water. Then, the maid jumped in the water. Then, the chef, who as he jumped, another sailor told me, “He’s Serbian. He likes the water. The rest of us are from Dalmatia, and we grew up swimming. We only swim once a year. Trust me, he likes it.” Then, he was in the drink. They were quite a way out, without any way to pull themselves back in, as none of the crew held on to a rope. It was like one going off a dock and another and another. Then, like a miracle, a man in a speedboat came along and dragged the whole group back to the boat. I had the same experience in Greece with my father, who didn’t realize the current and was brought closer and closer and closer to the rocks below Poseidon’s temple. They had to bring out a speedboat, which didn’t work at first. Regardless, this situation was total déjà vu.

Olib

We stepped on to the tiny island of Olib after our swimming adventure. The island looked empty from the boat, and even emptier from the shore. It only had 120 residents during last winter, but they think it was more like 80 residents. Walking down the main street, a Croatian man who had lived in New York talked to us and joked around. We went inside a building only to find a group of Croatian men, who spoke perfect English, playing the Italian card game of briscola, which I now know from research. I sat down next to one of the men, who started to joke with me, “You’re going to peak.”

“What?” I said.

“You’re going to peak,” he said, very matter-of-factly.

“What?” I repeated, his heavy Croatian accent was stopping me from understanding.

“Do you speak English?” He asked, cracking a smile.

“Yes, yes. Of course,” I laughed.

Finally, he mimed me looking at his cards. Here’s my face when I realized what he was saying:

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After the card game, we went to the opposite of a casino: a church. Walking in, we were greeted by a nun, who was waiting for our group. A group of around 10 old women started to gather in the pews of the church, which could fit a few hundred people. The town has totally been drained, before World War II, there were 2,000 people. There was a fish factory, an olive oil factory, and some other factories. During communism, the town was drained.

 

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One alter in the church done in a Baroque-style

I exited the church, but when I was outside, my mom was given a card with the picture of Aloysius Stepinac on it.  In a book I’ve been reading about the Balkan States, I learned about Aloysius Stepinac. He was the Archbishop of Zagreb in Croatia during World War II. Educated in the Vatican, he was staunch on his Catholicism. During the Ustaše regime, which was the Italian fascist and Nazi-backed puppet regime, Stepinac initially allowed race laws against Jews to be enacted, mass baptisms of Serbian Orthodox people before they were murdered, and did not stop concentration camps, but asked for them to be enacted “humanely.” The Serbians and Croatians argue about how many people were killed by the Ustaše regime: 70,000 or 700,000, and what percentage of that number was Jewish, Serbian, and Roma. Everyone argues and hates each other for it. Upon seeing a small card of Archbishop Stepinac in the church, my mom said to our guide, “He’s the bad guy, right?” Our guide said, “No, be very careful about saying anything like that around here. He saved a lot of Jews.” It’s true that by the end of the war he was trying to save Jews, but he was complicit in supporting race laws and not stopping concentration camps. By the end of the war, the Ustaše regime tried to get the archbishop removed from his position, but the Vatican didn’t recognize the fascists and did not comply. Stepinac was declared a martyr by Pope John Paul II. In my eyes, he isn’t a Saint, he’s merely a bystander who also murdered. Yet, all of the old women in this church revered him as a Catholic hero.

May 19-20: The Croatian Chronicles, the beginning

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Leaving the canals of Venice, I traveled to Croatian coast along the Adriatic Sea to catch a boat which I will call home for the next 7 days. Over the next week, I am traveling up the Croatian coastline along with a group of 30 people from Chicago– a fundraising literary tour that my mom organized.

Porec

As our port of call, Porec was the first Croatian land I truly saw. An old Roman town, the modern-day town is built on the same grid, with a Roman forum as one of its main streets. The town also houses a UNESCO World Heritage Euphrasian Basilica, which is renowned for its mosaics, which are compared to the Byzantine mosaics in Ravenna. I have seen the Ravenna mosaics, and these were extremely comparable and empty of tourists. The church was built in the sixth century, but it also has old remains of another church from it and remains from when Christians were persecuted in the Roman empire. It’s a church on a church one a church. I guess history repeats itself.

Rovinj

 

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The tomb that washed up on the shores with Saint Euphemia’s remains.

 

Starting the day in the small city of Rovinj, we walked up the hill to the Church of St. Euphemia. There lies relics of St. Euphemia that were said to have washed up in a sarcophagus on the shores of Rovinj. She died as a martyr during Diocletian’s time in the 4th century. I’m already struck by how Croatians love the myth–  that Saint Euphemia was so pure that lions would not kill her.

Brijuni Island

Next, we traveled to the Island of Brijuni, which was the summer home of Joseph Broz Tito who was the leader of the former Yugoslavia from 1947-1980, and is considered an authoritarian leader. The island has some palaces, a “safari” zoo, Roman ruins, and some hotels. Over time, the island has been controlled by Romans, Italians, the Austro-Hungarian Empire,  Yugoslavians, and Croatians. While the borders have changed, it seems that the people remain the same for the most part.

First, I’ll start with the zoo, which was beyond depressing to see. Many different world leaders gifted Tito various animals. Indira Gandhi gifted Tito two elephants, and one of them is still alive in the zoo, 46 years later. The zoo now has cows, zebras, horses, and goats all living together, as well as some ostriches. I hate seeing animals in zoos, and this just seemed like the remnants of Communism and a corrupt society.

Driving in a little tram car, we saw the remnants of a Roman villa, which archeologists think was the home of an emperor or emperor’s family.

 

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Remains of the Roman villa

 

Walking into a tiny house museum, our guide told us that, “All the animals died naturally.” Inside, I immediately saw a case with snakeskin shoes and purses, to which I joked, “Yes, they died naturally…” The guide tried to cover up, but I was right. The next galleries showed diorama after diorama of animals from Africa, Asia, and Europe: giraffes that had died from salmonella, baby orangutans, tiny bears. Again, it was beyond depressing. Upstairs, we saw hundreds of pictures of Tito with everyone from Sophia Loren to Muammar Qaddafi. The one thing fascinating that happened on Brijuni was the signing of the Brijuni Non-Allignment Treaty by Nasser, Nehru, and Tito in 1956. I had no idea such an important group, the Non-Aligned Countries, started on a tiny island in Croatia.

The guide did not say about anything bad about Tito, in fact, she spoke about him almost gloatingly. She seemed to admire him. What I take away is that either Croatians see Tito in a good light or as a state tour guide, our tour guide had to feed us the propaganda of the government.

Pula

We then docked in Pula, which has one of the best preserved Roman amphitheaters (like the Roman Coliseum). This amphitheater still has a perfect outer wall. Pula was an important town for the Romans, but it only had 5,000 people in the town. The amphitheater could fit around 23,000 people, and scholars think that the number of people farming in the area was quite large and big enough to fill the structure.

 

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The Roman amphitheater

 

We also saw a gate with Hercules and Hercules’ club on it, as well as an old temple from around 54 BC. Next to the temple was the town hall in a Venetian Gothic style, as Venice held control of Pula for a few centuries. Next to that, there is an Austro-Hungarian building from when the Hapsburgs ruled Croatia, and then there was an Italian fascist-style building from when the Italians had control of Pula. All in one square, we saw the architecture of the town’s history.

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Olive grove dinner

By bus, we went to the town of Medium to have dinner in an olive grove. Our host, Goran, let us taste olive oil and showed us how he (and his partner) make balsamic vinegar. He is a physicist by training, who focuses mainly on lasers, but he decided to take over his grandmother’s land because he missed working and being with people. All the food we ate during the night was from their groves or the farmer’s market. His partner also read us beautiful poetry by Antun Branko Simic (“Warning”) and Ivan Goran Kovacic (“The Pit”). Here is “Warning”:

“Man, be careful
not to walk small
under the stars.

May your whole body
be filled with
the dim light of the stars!

To have no regrets
when with the last glances
you part with the stars!

In your final hour
instead of dust
pass whole to the stars.”

Here are some photos of the grove and dinner:

 

Setting sail early in the morning, tomorrow will be another day of visiting tiny Croatian island, with more Roman ruins to see.

May 18: Are you Venetian or Italian first?

Identity in Venice

 

Does the chicken come before the egg or does the egg come before the chicken? With identity, it’s not always easy to tell how identities rank. I know for myself, I strongly identify as culturally Jewish, but not as the nationalities of my Jewish ancestors.

While walking around Dorsoduro, a district of Venice, our guide and I got into a discussion about identities. He was remarking that he can be Venetian first and then Italian, like the Russian nesting dolls. I disagreed and said that you could feel more strongly about the country you live in, rather than the city.

“Do you like tiramisu?” he said.

“No, I like panna cotta,” I said.

“Do you like spaghetti? Wait, no, which is your favorite pasta?” he said.

“I like tagliatelle,” I said.

“Well, you can’t have both all of the time, and you don’t want both all of the time. You want one sometimes, and the other sometimes. You could have both for a meal, but you won’t have them for every meal,” he remarked.

I think I take this as a sort of explanation for the fluidity of identity. I hadn’t really thought of it this way, but it makes sense. When I am in Romania or at a Donauschwaben ball, I feel more German, more Donauschwaben. Similarly, when I’m at synagogue, I feel more in-sync with being Jewish. I do think that I feel more connected to being American and being Jewish than anything else, but it’s interesting to think of the “scales” to which I feel my identities.

Venice Photographs

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May 17: The sinking city

Starting out by the Doge’s Palace, we learned about the architecture of Venice. When it was started to be built in the 7th century, wooden pilings were put in the marsh mud and stones were placed on top and buildings on top of the stones. Because of this, Venice sinks 1 mm per a year. In lighter information, here are some of the architectural styles seen in Venice:

Architectural styles

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The Doge’s Palace has been rebuilt a few times, but the style is Italian Gothic, which is different from French and German Gothic. The windows are shaped with a Moorish influence. 

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The building below the bell tower, which is a palace on St. Mark’s square, was done in the Italian Rennaissance-style and has classic rounded windows.

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St. Mark’s Basilica is a mixture of a lot of styles, but the arches are two different heights with the same width, which is classically Byzantine-style. The left-most mosaic is original to the 12th-century building of the church, but the right mosaic was done during the beginning of the Renaissance.

Jewish Ghetto

Venice’s relationship with the Jewish community is unique because it was one of the few European cities that allowed Jewish people to come and live within the city walls. The Jewish Ghetto was established in 1516, and with Napoleon’s conquering of Venice, the Jews could live anywhere in Venice in 1797. It is the world’s oldest ghetto.

Of course, the Jews were not allowed out of the Jewish Ghetto after dark, but they could leave during the day. Merchants and doctors worked outside the ghetto, but pawn shops had to be inside the Ghetto. These seem to be the three jobs that Jews did.

Within the ghetto, the Jews from every country established their own synagogue, so there is a German Ashkenazi synagogue, a Spanish synagogue, an Italian synagogue, and so on and so forth. We were told that intermarriage did not happen between nationalities, but I doubt that.

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While in Budapest and Timisoara, I saw numerous other churches and synagogues with stained glass. Here is a collection of stained glass that I thought look extremely similar:

Street art

I love street art, and in every city, I’ve been in so far, there’s clearly been a community of dedicated artists that are making street art consciously and beautifully.

May 16: The city of bridges, gondoliers, and seafood

I don’t know about you, but I see food (seafood) and I eat it. Today, I came to the city of fresh fish and canals. The city, which began in the 7th century, is built on pilings of wood and stone in a marsh-like lagoon. Overall, it’s not the most lasting of conditions for a world-renowned city to be built on.

For me, Venice is a city that is meant to be wandered on foot. The alleyways and courtyards invite travelers to take a peek into what Venice life looked like in the past. It’s all very Venetian.

Canals

Prison art cooperative

We stumbled upon a shop that sells handmade bags and soaps (conditioners, shampoos) that are handmade by prisoners in Venice. The organization, Rio Terà dei Pensieri, works with prisoners to train them in different handicrafts. After hearing about it,  American artist Mark Bradford, is now working with the prisoners as a part of the Venice Architecture Biennial. Interestingly,  it is also a collaboration with the U.S. State Department. The American prison system needs to take notes on how prisoners are being trained here in Venice.

Street Art

Things that don't fit into categories

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May 15: The town of covered streets and bright food

Like the tortellini soup I had early, I feel like I’ve had just a taste of Bologna. It’s a college town, but it seems more like a small town with people who say “hi” to each other on the street. It’s a mixture of cosmopolitan and friendly: it’s the friendly cosmopolitan.

The bricks, stones, and buildings

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The market

Meals in Bologna

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Art

May 13 & 14: Photographs of Florence

Florence is no doubt one of the busiest places I’ve visited yet. People are everywhere: tourists and locals. That being said, the city still feels like the place that the Medici family ruled and Michaelangelo roamed. Here are some of the pictures I’ve taken as I’m almost at a loss on how to describe Florence with words.

 

Street art

 

Medici Palace

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Santa Croche Church

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More street art

 

Central Market

 

Alexander Calder

 

The rest

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May 12: Angela and Assisi

Today, we made our way to Assisi, the hometown and pilgrimage site of St. Francis, the patron saint of nature and animals.

While in Assisi, a shopkeeper told us that Angela Merkel was in Assisi. It turned out that she was receiving an award from the monks and she gave a speech about peace in Europe. I don’t think it’s a complete coincidence that she was in the same city we visited. We did miss St. Francis’ major cathedral in Assisi, but it was worth it for Chancellor Merkel to give a speech about peace.

The other fact that struck me today occurred in a Roman villa. The sign talked about how the Romans had to integrate the Latin and Italic people into the empire. Today, European countries still deal with the same issues of integrating people who are “different.” Yet when we think of Italy today we think of a unified country and not a lot of trips just “getting along.” will it just take a bit of time for all of us to think of ourselves as one?

 

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Mosaic in Roman villa in Spello

 

Earlier in the day, we visited a Roman villa in Spello, which was called Hispellum by the Romans. The town only became a true Roman town when Augustus gave it the title of a colonial town. Often times, we think of the Roman Empire as automatically being all of Italy, but it isn’t all of Italy. It’s all more complicated.

 

 

In both Assisi and Spoleto, which we visited second, we saw two places where the Romans were entertained: a coliseum and an amphitheater. The Coliseum, in Assisi, is now homes with apartments, dogs, and fountains all around. It goes to show how people can turn the old into new. In Spoleto, the Teatro Romano was “found” in 1800, and is used to this day for performances. Both of the old entertaining structures are used today, for modern life.

 

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Teatro Romano in Spoleto

It’s on to Firenze (Florence) tomorrow!

May 10: The day everything is closed in Vienna

As today is 40 days after Easter, it is the Day of Ascension, where Jesus ascended into Heaven. Everything is closed and everyone is outside enjoying the weather. Luckily, museums weren’t closed.

We wandered around the streets of Vienna (despite all the shops being closed) and went to the Belvedere Palace and the Albertina Museum.

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The Belvedere Palace was the summer palace for Prince Eugene of Savoy, who was a French prince who “transferred” his loyalty on to the Hapsburg Empire. He fought in different wars as the military commander for Maria Theresa, and even “got back” land in Romania, where my ancestors, the Donauschwaben, farmed and lived on. To “my people,” he’s a hero, but I have a feeling that to a girl my age living in Turkey, he is the opposite. His palace was beautiful, and he had over 200,000 books, but only 4 bookshelves at his summer residence, I guess he did all his reading in the winter.

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I didn’t get shushed today, but in the Albertina I got a very steely look in the Keith Haring exhibit. Dealing with mass hysteria, fundamentalism, and the AIDs crisis, it’s amazing how relevant Keith Haring’s work is today. He would be 60 if he were alive today. In the Albertina, we saw art from Monet to Michangelo to Picasso to Chagall to Haring. Everyone who was someone (i.e. a man) was there.

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On to Italy tomorrow, the land of good pasta and tons of churches.

May 9: Up and away to the Austrian Alps

Now

On either side of the car, the Austrian alps opened up. Traveling through the greenery and the foothills of the alps, we arrived at the doors of the Admont Abbey in Admont, Austria. There, Oma’s friend, Baerbl, met us at the door. They went to school together 60 years ago in 1948.

We entered what is called one of the 8 wonders of the world, the Admont Abbey Library. With over 200,000 books, the Abbey’s oldest book is from 808 AD and is an dictionary, it was found in a random box last year. It’s the largest monastic library in the world. The style is a mish-mosh of neoclassical, rococo, baroque design. Frankly, it was kind of ugly in a beautiful way. While standing in the library, I was talking about the Dead Sea scrolls to my mom, when about five old Austrian women loudly shushed me with angry faces. My mom remembers some old Austrian woman telling her to “shut me up” when I was about 3 in Vienna. I guess I’m a little too Talia, a little too loud for Austria.

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Then

Getting on the train in Vienna, Oma, her brothers, and her mother set out for Essling bei Altenmarkt, Austria. They traveled to the end of the Russian zone, the border between the Russian and British zone. None of the family had papers, and they stopped at a truck stop right by the border. Oma’s mother convinced a truck driver to take them to Altenmarkt, and the truck driver’s said that he would say they were “his family” if they got caught. This was a huge risk for them. In big trucks, they arrived and Oma doesn’t remember how they got to Essling. Once in Essling, they found the schoolhouse where her father was a teacher, but he wasn’t there. He was eating lunch at a guesthouse up on the hill. Some neighbor ran up and they had their over four-year reunion. Once they were there for a little while, her 3 year-old brother, Harold, asked Oma if “they could talk now,” because on their whole escape, they had been continuously told to be quiet or they would all be caught. I can’t imagine the whole experience.

Oma was placed in the 4th/5th grades with her father as her teacher for two years. Up to age 9, she had only very basic schooling and WWII stunted the schooling that was offered to her. The next year, she tested into a high school (what Americans consider middle school) in Admont, a nearby town. She attended for one year, but then the family immigrated to America because her father was going to be moved to a more rural town as the teacher.

Now

We walked through Admont town, and saw the building where Oma and Baerbl went to school. Oma even pointed out the room where she studied. That’s where she learned Greek, Austrian, British history. She credits it as a place of learning and where she learned to appreciate the life of the mind.

The mountains closed in one the road, and the river appeared beside us. “There it is, it’s by the curve,” Oma said. The river, a crystal blue color, curves. Between 1949 and now, the river was made wider by a dam and her home, the old schoolhouse, was destroyed. We pulled into a road by a power plant, and walked on the road, which Oma thought was her road. On our left, tons of ruins of trees. I even saw a piece of wooden board. A black snake peaked out at me and hissed at me. The river was absolutely beautiful, like something out of a fairytale. It’s easy for me to imagine the whole family here. Driving up the hill, a meadow opened up in front of us and we saw the guesthouse where Oma’s father always ate. We walked the same route as him, almost in his footsteps.

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This is the end of our journey with Oma, the end of the road for her escape. What we did in 7 days, she did in 11 days, all those miles and trains and people and borders. Guess what? It’s pretty much the same today, time goes on, and people continue the same patterns. If anything, I think I leave this leg of the trip with more questions about my own identity and how others identify.

Stay tuned for more Vienna, Italy, and Croatia!

May 8: Crossing the Austro-Hungarian border

Now

We started at a train station in Budapest. Traveling at some 50 mph, we sped across the Austro-Hungarian border into Austria.

Then

 

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Oma in the train station

 

In 1947, before she got on a train, Oma remembers sleeping in a train station in Budapest for a few nights. Oma traveled in a train for German soldiers returning to Germany after the war.

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The Budapest train station

 

The train from Budapest stopped in a town near the Hungarian border. The whole group of 17 refugees got off the train because they did not have papers to travel. At the border, the Austrians and the Hungarians started shooting at the group, and half of the group got stuck on the Austrian border and the other half got stuck on the Hungarian border. Oma and her family were at the Austrian border, where they were thrown in a basement to sleep on straw. The next morning, they stood before an Austrian commander where my great-grandmother explained that they were to meet her husband in the Alps. They told them to depart but never tell anyone that the Austrian soldiers let them leave.

They took a train to Vienna, where they searched for cousins. Some nice people let them into their apartment and they slept on Persian rugs. Oma cites it as the time she first saw true opulence. The next day they found the cousin, who was a barber, in Vienna. I have beautiful pictures from the day that they met.

Now

Today, our train pulled into the rainy Austrian capital. And tomorrow, we continue Oma’s route to Austria.

 

 

May 7: What’s behind those closed doors?

The city is so beautiful. But, much like the plaster facades of the neoclassical, historical, art nouveau, brutalist, and baroque-style buildings, Hungary seems fragile politically and culturally. This contradiction creates a strange feeling when I walk around the streets and wonder what is behind all the closed doors. Here’s a collection of the pictures of the facade of Budapest.

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May 7: Hungary and the scary politics you’ve never heard about

Hungary has a 900-year-old history of plundering, stealing, and being controlled by invaders. From the Romans to the Ottomans, different groups have controlled Hungary. The three periods that moved me the most were the 1940s, the Communist era, and today’s era.

Nazis

Hungary was very accepting of Jewish people in the 1800s and even gave them full citizenship and a place in the Hungarian state, which was uncommon for the time. In 1940, Miklós Horthy was Regent of Hungary and signed on to be one of Hitler’s Axis Powers. While current history in Hungary has been rewritten to say Horthy did not let the Nazis kill Jewish people until 1944 (when the Arrow Cross Party, the equivalent of the SSa Nazi Party, took over).  In fact, deportations of Jews outside of Budapest started in 1940. He needed the educated Jewish population in Budapest to keep the city running. Seventy five percent of the doctors were Jewish at the time and 90% of the businesses were owned by Jews.

Today, there are many Nazi poets and heroes that have statues up in Budapest. They were erected by Viktor Orban, the current prime minister of Hungary after his 2010 election. Further than that, the Turul, a mythic bird symbol that the Nazi party used, still sits next to the Royal Palace. In terms of a Holocaust memorial, he has put up a few, but denies that the Hungarian people or government had anything to do with the Nazis until 1944. That’s a lie.

Today, we visited a Holocaust memorial that the government put up. Archangel Gabriel underneath the Nazi eagle, basically saying that the Hungarians were “taken” by the Nazis during WWII. That was not the case, as Hungary was one of the first countries to ally with Hitler and cooperate in sending Jewish people to concentration camps. Upon further research, I learned that the monument was put up in the middle of the night (https://budapestbeacon.com/german-occupation-memorial-completed-under-cover-of-darkness/). In front of the memorial, protestors have put up their own barbed wire memorial with true accounts of how the Hungarian government was involved from 1940 onward, not from 1944 onward like the current-day propaganda says.

 

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The current Holocaust memorial with the truth about the Hungarian involvement in front.

Communism

From 1949-1989, Hungary was a Communist state controlled by the former Soviet Union. There was a horrible secret police force that controlled free speech and murdered dissidents. Hungary also served as the place where America and Russia would exchange their money and negotiate.  Hungary was the middleman.

The Nationalistic Nutcase

Today, Viktor Orban heads the country. Dangerously.

  1. He hates Muslims and has run on a platform saying that Hungary will turn into a Muslim country if they allow refugees in.
  2. He is anti-Semitic and denies Hungary’s role in the Holocaust.
  3. He has consolidated his own power, so that the Judicial and Legislative branches of the country are beneath him. There are no more checks and balances in Hungary.
  4. He has gerrymandered, so that he can control the state.
  5. He has moved into the mansion where the Horthy (Hitler’s willing collaborator) lived instead of living in the traditional prime minister’s mansion.
  6. He was the first world leader to congratulate President Trump on his win.
  7. He is a part of the nationalistic rise in Europe, and the “blueprint” by which other leaders on the far right are gaining power in Europe.
  8. Hungary is no longer stated as a democracy, but as a totalitarian kleptocracy. That is because of Orban.

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An anti-Orban protestor who stands in front of parliament

Our guide, a Hungarian professor who had grown up in Romania, talked about how dangerous the current mentality is in Hungary. Free speech is no longer allowed. The way I see it, when free speech is taken, everything else goes with it. If I can predict Hungary’s future, they don’t have that much longer in the EU or as a respectable country.

In both Romania and Hungary, I have witnessed people who are intensely loyal to their “own” ethnic group. In Romania, I heard people say they had lived in the country for 40 years, but were from Hungary. Again, this mentality seems to create an “us vs. them” situation that creates the perfect environment for nationalism to take hold. Our guide commented that this nationalism takes the same hold as religion, and can be just as controlling. Emotions take over and people are willing to die over their “tribe” or their religion– as history has shown us time and again.

As I was doing my own research, I learned that the Budapest Beacon closed this April 13, 2018, because it felt that it could not cover the news of Hungary anymore. As someone who has been very involved with journalism and cares deeply about the facts, this is appalling to me. In the United States, President Trump may call CNN and the New York Times “fake news,” but he has not shut them down. They have grown stronger. In Hungary, the news is leaving and when the news leaves, so does the truth. Here’s the exit interview from the newspaper, it’s worth a look through: https://budapestbeacon.com/german-occupation-memorial-completed-under-cover-of-darkness/

Tomorrow, we set out for Vienna and travel the same train route that Oma did in 1947 when she was escaping between Hungary and Austria.

May 6: Budapest the beautiful

 

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Arriving the back way, Budapest came into view with lemon-yellow, sunset-orange, and white marble buildings all with their own details of gargoyles, cherubs, grapes, workers, women, food, flowers, cornucopias, and more. Walking outside of our hotel, the city opened up like a sheath of silk. The streets are wide, the greenery is plentiful, and the buildings have just the right amount of tear to look lived-in AND exquisite.

Sitting at a cafe and drinking a strawberry-basil lemonade, a bird flew on to my dress and attached itself to me. Having no idea what was happening, I jumped up and starting dancing around the place and screaming. Very traumatizing. He released and Lissa helped him fly. From having a bird poop on me in Timisoara to a baby bird attach itself to my dress, I’m beginning to think the birds have something to tell me. I plan to find out what.

Tomorrow, we tour Budapest and learn about the Communist era, the Belle Epoque period, and post-Modernism. Get ready for some propaganda and the “beautiful era.”

 

May 6: Crossing the border now and then

Now

Leaving Timisoara early in the morning, Oma and I traveled in one car with a driver and my parents in another. We drove to the Hungarian-Romanian border, where the topic of refugees came up. The driver started telling us that there’s a huge problem with refugees in Hungary, just like Mexicans with the United States and tried to “confirm” with us that Mexicans were bad, to which I immediately said no, and explained the Mexicans are welcome, and do tons for America. He also tried to confirm that Donald Trump is a good president, and Oma and I protested.

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All through the car ride to the border, Oma used her rosary, which I got for her in Israel

This was pure xenophobia, and while he didn’t use intense rhetoric, he understatedly said what he thought: refugees are bad and shouldn’t be in HIS country. He tried to get us agree, which I, as someone who knows that this sly rhetoric leads to bad things, argued. 

We got over the border, and Oma asked about the standard of living in Hungary vs.  Romania. He said that Hungary was better because of the politics and economics, but I’m well aware that Hungarian politics currently have xenophobic and fascist undertones. The Hungarian government is xenophobic and the prime minister, Viktor Orban, does not believe Muslim people should in his country. Further, he believes that the country should be an “illiberal democracy,” which is where people vote, but they don’t know what the government does. To me, this seems like a disaster and a complete invasion of civil liberties. To many, I assume, it may seem fine. His xenophobia is how genocide begins, it’s how leaders create an “us vs. them” mentality. In recent years, many European countries have seen a rise to their nationalist parties, which are far-right and anti-immigration. These parties are echoing the same rhetoric of WWII, and that’s how WWII will be repeated. 

Then

On August 17, 1947, my Oma was 9 years old.  She and her brothers were at their grandmother’s house outside of Timisoara when two Russian soldiers (who lived in their house in Sinandrei) arrived at their door and asked everyone to come with them. At the time, Romania was in the Russia zone. She knew the soldiers and recognized them, so   all of the children and their grandmother went to Sinandrei. There, they were told that Oma, her brothers, and her mother would be going to Austria to be with their father. Essentially, they were escaping. They took a few photos with their grandmothers and were packed into a truck with 17 other people and a guide. They brought two suitcases: a wicker suitcase and a wood suitcase. When they got to the border, the guide said they would have to run between the border guards. They hid in a cornfield until nightfall and dropped the wicker suitcase, as Oma’s mother had to carry one of her younger brothers who was sick.  They ran over the border and were taken to a farmhouse. They slept in the barn that night, Oma remembers sleeping on the straw. The next morning they sneaked through the streets of Szeged, Hungary and took a train to Budapest. Oma thinks the train was a train for German soldiers, who were still trying to get back to Germany two years after WWII had ended. Then, they got to Budapest.

Now

Then, we got to Budapest.

May 5: Schoolhouse towns

Before her father went into the army during World War II, Oma lived in two different towns: Traunau and Wisenheid, where he was the school teacher. Both towns have Romanian names now, not the Donauschwaben names that they had when Oma was a child. In fact, the Romanians don’t even know the old names.

 

 

 

The first of the two towns that we visited was Traunau, and all we found there was the church and the schoolhouse, whose windows I matched with a picture I had showing broken windows and broken bricks surrounding the schoolhouse. The living quarters had been broken off and destroyed. It was not a place to spend much time.

 

 

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The front of the Traunau schoolhouse and a picture of Oma’s father and his students.

 

 

In Wisenheid, Oma started talking to a young Romanian woman, who had learned English from television, movies, and games. She cleaned the school, and let us inside. This year, the school only has two classrooms and next year it will have one. There aren’t enough children to fill the school. The actual school rooms did not have many learning tools in them and they did not seem to have enough materials.

The woman lamented that there aren’t opportunities for young people in Wisenheid, as she could not go to college and did not have job opportunities in the village. It seems to me that Romania is a country devoid of many opportunities both for young people and older people. Young people are leaving for economic opportunity in other countries.

After the Iron Curtain lifted in 1989, it seems that there have been many improvements, but at this point,  it seems like they have reached a plateau.  In the area, there are a lot of commercial farms owned by Italians, Germans and other European countries. The Romanian people  themselves seem to be left behind– with small farms and herders tending their sheep and cattle.

May 5: Am I Romanian?

For lunch, we traveled to Hanz’s, house in Sinandrei, Romania. He was born there in 1968, and lived there as a Donauschwaben, an ethnic German, for 20 years. Then, he went to Germany to study and went back to Romania to start a business.

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Oma, Hanz, and Seppi, all Donauschwaben members who were born in Sinandrei. They are drinking Hanz’s win, which he grew in Sinandrei.

When asked why he opened his logistics business for transporting car parts from Romania around the world, he told us how he could make more money in Romania. He even married a Romanian woman. He did say that he doesn’t know of any German women marry ing Romanian men, which I see as telling. I think it’s interesting that it’s only one-sided.

His daughter, who is now 20, went to German schools, as there is more job opportunity if a person knows English and German. Again, the fact that the school’s were not integrated in terms of language struck me.

We also asked about ethnic communities, and he said that they stick to themselves: Italians with Italians, Serbians with Serbians, Germans with Germans (belonging  to German business clubs as well), Romanians with Romanians, Croatians with Croatians. I think that there is something lacking in a national identity.

Hans identifies as a German-Romanian, which is the first I’ve heard of a Donauschwaben identifying as both. I like that. I’m currently in a place of deciding: what am I? Am I Romanian-Donauschwaben? Am I German? Am I nothing? Am I merely a human?

May 5: The Homegoing

Winding around large agricultural, commercial farms our Volkswagen flew by poppies in bloom, trains carrying Ford cars, and colorful villages each with their own steeple. As “our” steeple came into view, Oma started going, “Take a picture! Take a picture!” This was her homecoming, her homegoing. After 43 years of not visiting, she was finally back.

Born in Sinandrei, Romania, Septemeber 3, 1937, Oma (born Annerose Welsch, and now Annerose Goerge), lived in the same house during her years there. She also lived in the villages of Wisenheid and Traunau, as her father, Matthias Welsch was a schoolteacher and got jobs at different German-speaking, Donauschwaben schools. In 1947, Oma, her mother, and her two brothers escaped Romania in search of their father in Austria.

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A Romanian man using a horse and buggy in Sinandrei.

First, we went to Sinandrei and started at the church, where we were unexpectedly met by a childhood friend of Oma’s who happened to be visiting her family’s grave stones and the church. They had not seen each other since 1946.  I even had a picture of them on their first communion day!  She remembers Oma falling in the mud with her skirt flared out and sitting in the mud pile. Hard to imagin Oma in the mud.  Seppi, another Donauschwaben who takes care of some of the old sites, was also there to take us around the village.

Going inside the church, Oma was struck. “This was the place where I got my religion,” she said. The place where she had her first communion. The place where her parents were born. The place where her father was the organist.

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My father sitting at the same organ that his grandfather played.

She told us how her father would make them say  prayers every night and he was the person that she credits with giving her religion.

It was funny for me to see her so connected to something that I know so little about. I respect her faith and I am in awe of it most times, but my father, her son, is an atheist. Catholicism, Christianity was lost on him and on me. Across the street was the school, where she attended for her first 2 years of schooling, and where her father taught. In all three towns we visited, the school and the church were right next doors to one and other, and those were the places where Oma lived and her father taught. No separation between learning and Church. Furthermore, all of the churches were still churches,  and the schools were still schools, and the houses were still houses. Not much had changed in 70 years except the facades and the roofs.

After visiting the center of town, Oma chose to walk the same route she used to walk to school from her house. Walking along the sides, she remembered little pieces of land and Seppi would interject with stories about the families who lived in the houses.  Now only 12 Germans remain and the houses are inhabited by Romanians.

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Oma standing in garden where she stood after her first communion.

For a minute in the now, they were living in the past. Stopping at the community center, we saw the same place where Oma stood on the day of her first communion.

Making our way to the house, we got many stares from normal, Romanian people who now live in Sinandrei, cooing pigeons, and quite a few barks from dogs.  At Oma’s old the house, Seppi started banging on the gate, and the Romanian woman who lived there opened it for us. She didn’t speak a lick of English, but let us inside.

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Oma standing in the corridor that of the hous where she grew up.

Inside, the gate, the garden was pretty much in the same state it had been 70 years ago. The pump was still there.

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My dad and I in front of the pump where even he pumped water on a visit in 1975.

We walked through, admiring her flowers and vegetables. Seppi went on about how she wasn’t planting the “right” vegetables and plants, but the way I see, it’s her land and her right. We got to the back of the yard, and Oma talked to me about how during World War II, the Russians used their house as the headquarters and the next door house as the hospital. When a Russian man died, his body was buried in the back of the yard. Who knows how many bones are back there? My mom questioned if the families of the Russian men even knew. It’s crazy to think that there’s some family in Russian wondering where their soldier’s bones are.

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The corner of the yard where the Russian soldiers are buried.

My grandmother walked inside the side of the house and looked at the ceiling, which had been repaired. She recounted that there had been nights when she, her brothers, and her grandmother had stayed with her mother in one bed because a Russian soldier wanted to rape her mother. There used to be bullet holes in the ceiling from when the Russian officer got upset and shot in the ceiling.

Invited inside the house, the stove was the same stove as 70 years ago. Boy, that’s a lot of grease!  Walking inside the basement or the “keller,” as my grandmother calls it, the use was the same as her childhood: canning and preserving fruit and vegetables in the cool musty air. The house seemed to both make Oma happy and sad: happy that people were using it and sad for nostalgia of the past.

We left the home and went to the overgrown, weedy cemetery. Most of the graves have noone to pay for them and have fallen into serious disrepair.

My great-great-great grandparents are buried there, side-by-side. Their gravesite is the only gravesite to have a metal fence around it, as my great-great-great grandfather, Johannes Sieber, was a blacksmith- and the metalwork was truly beautiful. For Oma, there was an importance in honoring and praying for the dead.

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Tomorrow, we set off on the true “escape route,” starting in Timishoara and making our way to Budapest. Crossing the border, Oma share her stories of walking in corn fields, carrying heavy suitcases as a 10-year old, and running across the border, so that the boarder guards would not see them.

May 4: Whose land is it anyway?

A day of schools and religious sites. Driving into Timisoara, I was struck by the strange mix of dilapidated, ornate neo-classical buildings and Soviet “style” apartment blocks. It’s easy to imagine Communist Romania just 28 years ago!

We expected a day on our own exploring Timisoara.  But, surprise! Both my third cousin-in-law and the head of my grandmother’s village association, Seppi, showed up at our hotel within minutes of our arrival. We were well greeted to say the least!! 

With a mix of translating Romanian, German, and English in trying to decide where to go, we made out our way to the site of my great grandmother’s school, which was bombed during World War II. We were told by Seppi that the school is now a Serbian College, for only Serbian students. That was the start of our observations of ethnic segregation.  Even now, there are Hungarian, Romanian, and German schools, which all teach their own languages and culture. At first glance, it seems there is a lack of crossover or mixing among different ethnicities, and it is, in fact, ethnic segregation: both in 1930 to the present day.  This makes me sad for the world that we live in.   

After walking through the dust-filled streets, we went to the Piața Unirii, where my Oma  and her Grandmother sold vegetables in 1946. For some time, my Oma and her brothers lived outside of Timisoara and they were at her house when Russian soldiers showed up to take them to escape (more on that later).

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A picture of Oma and I right in front of where she and her grandmother sold vegetables and flowers

Sitting down to lunch, Seppi and Oma (my Grandmother) started to discuss the status of the church and graveyard in their hometown, Sin Andrei, which was a primarily German town in Romania. They talked about how the church was falling apart, how the Romanian government had no care for their history, and how they felt ignored and forgotten. Both identify as German, Yet, they  do not identify as Romanian. It took my grandmother a few years after immigrating to see herself as an American, but even after 9 generations of living in Romania, and living the first 10 years of her life there, she doesn’t see herself as Romanian. She is German and Donauschwaben, first and foremost. Those identifiers are what matter.

I disagree with the “us vs. them” language and mentality that my grandmother and Seppi were using. “The Germans cultivated the land.” “The Germans had their history here.” It’s all about the Germans, and not about everyone coming together or trying to coexist and marry into different ethnicities. My family is very proud that they stayed within the Donauschwaben for 9 generations.

 

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Oma with in front of her mother’s school with her mother’s picture

 

We then went to my great grandfather’s school, a teacher’s college. The college had been built by Donauschwaben for Donauschwaben to educate their own. It was not for the Serbians, Croatians, or any other ethnicities. Different people from different countries did not learn together. Seppi told us that even the engineering college had separate classes in the same college for Germans, Romanians, and Hungarians.  They learned with their “own” people. I can see how this would create some type of homogenous group-think, which I see as very dangerous and inflammatory.

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A picture of my great gandfather infront of his teacher’s college

Of course, there were beautiful things that the teacher’s college created for my great grandfather. He became an avid gardener and bird lover, and he was taught to love nature by his teachers and by being in a nature society. As I was hearing about the nature society, a bird pooped on my back. I took this as a sign.

Tomorrow, we are heading to Sin Andrei, one of the villages that my Oma grew up in. I’m excited to see the church where my great grandparents were married, the streets where Oma played as a child, and the home where they all lived.

First, a little history

In the 12th century, the Donauschwaben, an ethnic German group from the Alsace-Lorraine region, came to various eastern European countries. During the Hapsburg Empire in the 17th century, immigration increased among the Donauschwaben who came to the Banat region of Romania. In 1740, Maria Theresa of Austria became the Queen of Hungary, and told various groups to colonize the Romanian region. Throghout history, the Donauschwaben have been given land grants. When I imagine colonizers, I imagine Britain and India or the Congo and Brussels.  I have never thought about my family as colonizers, but they were.

 

 

Before the trip

Since I was around 12, I have been fascinated by family history and identity. Both of my father’s parents are immigrants, and my grandmother, Oma, was once a refugee who ultimately made it to America. She came to America from Austria when she was 13, after escaping from a German colony in Romania in 1947 when she was 9. She traveled with her mother and two younger brothers through Romania, Hungary, and ended up in Austria, where her father was teaching in a school. She was one of the last groups to flee out of Romania before the Iron Curtain fell. For my May Project, Oma, my parents, and I will be traveling to Romania, through Hungary, and west to Austria— following her route out.  I have heard Oma tell the story of “the Great Escape” time and time again. It is something that she has always taken pride in and is proud of where she came from. Now, I am going to see the places where she lived, grew up, and have the amazing opportunity make the journey with her.

A picture of my great grandmother, Omama; grandmother, Oma; and two uncles.